India and China have made prenatal sex determination illegal to prevent sex-selective abortion. In India, this was done through the Preconception and Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act 1994 (PCPNDT Act). However, this has not necessarily affected the widespread practice of sex-selective abortion, as abortion is generally legal and this law has been applied inconsistently. In China, social preference for male children was exacerbated by the historical one-child policy, in which parents in many parts of China were limited to having only one child. As in India, prenatal sex determination is banned in China, but remains a widespread practice, with law enforcement also proving difficult.  However, the way in which the data is collected circumvents this difficulty. Certificates that allow TPM are registered according to the type of original indication: chromosomal, genetic and malformative. The category of malformations excludes those whose origin is known to be caused by a chromosome or gene. Table 1 shows the prevalence of indications for which TPM certificates were signed in 2009. 53 We can see that chromosomal and malformative abnormalities account for 86% of all attestations, but each category has its own peculiarities.
Chromosomal abnormalities form the main nucleus of routinizedPN activity: they are stable within the population, homogeneous throughout the country, identifiable for a long time and in the vast majority of cases subject to DPW approval. On the other hand, as I have observed, malformation is a fuzzy category associated with suspicious images that are sometimes difficult to interpret, and even if there is no doubt, as for agenesis of the corpus callosum 54, its functional consequences remain uncertain. We can assume that, although there are differences between the practices, they refer to dangerous situations that are in the “grey zone” (to use practitioners` own term). For all these reasons, I thought it was reasonable to consider the number of chromosomal abnormalities diagnosed as a common denominator that allowed a comparison of the activity of the different centers. Amniocentesis can detect infections via a decrease in glucose levels, Gram staining that shows bacteria, or an abnormal differential number of white blood cells.  Common congenital infections during pregnancy that can be detected by amniocentesis are cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B, parvovirus B19, and toxoplasmosis.  Early diagnosis of these infections facilitates the treatment of the pregnant person with therapies such as immunoglobulins or antibiotics, leading to a reduction in secondary diseases in the fetus  or possible prevention of mother-to-child transmission.  The first amniotic stem cell bank in the United States is active in Boston, Massachusetts.     Some companies use Oxford Academic`s personal accounts to grant access to their members. See below. The provincial centre had seized on the regulatory requirement as an opportunity to create cohesion in practices that were not only dispersed between the public and private sectors, but also geographically.
Unlike the Centre de Paris, many team members divided their time between hospital sessions and self-employment. Specialists from the public and private sectors therefore attended the multidisciplinary meetings. The greater heterogeneity of the participants helped explain why the staff sessions, outside the regulatory mission, had a combined function of socialization and training of student midwives (in particular). For this reason, discussions were also not limited to cases subject to a legal obligation, but could also include any other situation that a practitioner would like to discuss with colleagues. 16. Angus Clarke, “The evolving concept of non-directiveness in genetic counselling,” in P. Harper and Doetz (eds.), loc. cit. (Note 1), 541-566; Nete Schwennesen, Mette Nordahl Svendsen and Lene Koch, “Beyond Informed Choice: Prenatal Risk Assessment, Decision-making and Trust,” Clinical Ethics, 5 (2010), pp. 207-216; Lynda M. Hunt, Heide Castaneda and Katherine de Voogd, “Do Notions of Risk Advise Patient Choice? Lessons from a Study of Prenatal Genetic Counselling,” Medical Anthropology, 25 (2006), pp.
193-219. Thus, while the legal framework put in place in the 1990s and 2000s influenced the number of members and composition of the teams, as well as the nature of the case to be submitted – in particular by requiring that any indication that could lead to a TPM be discussed collectively 61 – these formal changes had little impact on the organisation of the work of the previously formed teams. with total autonomy and the desire to preserve their traditions. However, this practical approach to staff meetings has not been without consequences for the form and content of the discussions that took place there. Coordinator: When we meet with the parents, and it is a serious case, () we suggest that they tell them that it is serious and that they can terminate the pregnancy. Under normal circumstances, it is up to them to ask, but in this case, we suggest it. We are following the line of my predecessor, whom I knew well and with whom I had good relations. We tell them, “It`s your decision.” If they want to keep the baby, we tell them that we will take care of it and we advise them.
But we make the proposal. I have colleagues who say that this is not good, that we must leave it to the parents to ask for it. We are the only ones to do that. It`s specific to us. 82. Decree on recommendations of good practices in the field of PD (JORF No. 0133, of 11 June 2015, 9630). At the Paris Centre, compliance with the legal framework has been achieved in such a way that the Centre`s historical practices have been modified as little as possible by exercising full control over the format of meetings and recording discussions in space and time. The desire for efficiency prevailed, supported by strict hierarchical relationships. Staff activity has been centralized and formalized. Two midwives devoted themselves full-time to the preparation of the multidisciplinary meetings. They gathered the files, asked for the missing information, prepared a slideshow of all the cases to be presented according to a standard template and sent all this by e-mail to all the participants before the meeting.
While important research has shown that second-trimester amniotic fluid cells successfully differentiate into different cell lines, third-trimester cells, as well as amniotic fluid obtained at the time of caesarean section at birth, have successfully differentiated into neuronal cell lines with lower myocyte differentiation.  DPW is primarily used to get rid of unwanted pregnancies resulting from unprotected casual sex or sometimes even contraceptive failure or even unhappy rape. As noted in the History section, amniocentesis can be used to determine the sex of a fetus. This may be medically relevant in families that have X-linked genetic diseases, as parents may want additional genetic testing if it is determined that the fetus is a man (XY) and therefore has a greater chance of having the hereditary disease. However, gender segregation is also used for social and cultural reasons. In some cultures, male children are more desirable than female children. This leads some parents to use amniocentesis and other forms of prenatal genetic testing (such as chorionic villus sampling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis) to determine the sex of the child with the intention of terminating the pregnancy if it is determined that the fetus has two X chromosomes. Sex-selective abortion is particularly common in countries such as China or India, among others. Sex-selective abortion is one of the causes of the low male-to-female ratio among children in countries in Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe.
Gender relations are also significantly distorted in the Caucasus region. Of course, the male-to-female ratio is about 105 men per 100 women, and any significant deviation from these values is generally considered evidence of sex-selective abortion  Oxford Academic is home to a variety of products. The institutional subscription may not cover the content you want to access. If you think you have access to this content, please contact your librarian. 24. The term dispositifis comes from Michel Foucault, Surveillance and Punishment (Paris: Gallimard, 1975). But there are many troubling trends that come up when talking about MTP. Many unskilled people do this by risking the lives of the fetus and mother. Second, if the sex of the child is determined by illegal means and it turns out that it is a female child, DPW is performed. These practices are dangerous, risky and very disturbing.